Top 12 Best Macro lenes For Nikon in 2022

Without a lens, ordinary cameras are of no use. The lens is an important necessary part of a camera without which it cannot survive. But, is a kit lens enough for good all-rounded photography? Can a single lens perform well in all photography categories? These are the types of questions that every beginner has in his mind.

Don’t worry; we are here to help you out. We work on various lenses and cameras. After proper analysis and investigations, we select some of the best lenses and cameras for a certain category just like this list of the “Best Macro Lenses For Nikon”. Macro lenses are needed for photography to shoot farther objects clearly.

A macro lens is vastly used for photography. It enables a photographer to shoot a faraway object that appears very distant but through the lens, it seems to be very close and clear and thus in the resulting images.

list of Best Macro lenes For Nikon

Macro lenses have a vast variety, some are short, some are long and some are prime lenses while others are telephoto. To make it easier for you we have compiled this article on the “Best Macro Lenses For Nikon”.

So keep up with the article for all the information and suggestions that are very important and that may help you in one or another way.

What is a super macro lens?

A super-macro lens is actually a term in which the lens captures extremely close-up shots of the subject. Hence, the image projected on the sensor is nearly the same size as it appears in reality. This super macro lens is often termed by photographers as 1:1 macro magnification.

Which Nikon lens is Macro?

There is more than one Nikon lens that is made macro. Some of these lenses have a 1:1 macro magnification which makes them super macro. These include AF Micro-NIKKOR 200mm f/4D IF-ED, AF-S DX Micro-NIKKOR 85mm f/3.5G ED VR and AF-S VR Micro-NIKKOR 105mm f/2.8G IF-ED while there are many other macro Nikon lenses as well.

Cheap macro lens for Nikon

Nikon AF-S DX Micro-NIKKOR 85mm f/3.5G ED

Top Features

  •  Focal length: 85mm
  • Aperture: f/3.5
  • Min. focus distance: 0.29
  • Elements in groups: 14/10
  • Weight: 355g

Nikon AF-S DX Micro-NIKKOR 85mm f/3.5G ED is the cheapest lens that we can find for this purpose of photography. It offers the best macro photography in this price range.

Autofocus & Accuracy: The minimum focusing distance through which Nikon AF-S DX Micro-NIKKOR 85mm f/3.5G ED can shoot is 0.29m as this lens is basically a macro prime lens so it has a sharp minimum distance focus. The silent wave motor and internal focusing allows the lens to focus the subject in real time. In addition, it offers a 1:1 maximum magnification and one low-dispersion element. The low-dispersion element reduces fringing and aberrations to enhance the overall lens accuracy.

Sharpness & Stabilization: to benefit the sharpness of the lens, a super integrated coating is applied to each element which reduces flare, ghosting, aberrations and internal reflections that result in improved color contrast and accuracy. The Vibration Reduction (VB) II image stabilizer is installed in the lens to stabilize images.

Elements & Mount: Nikon AF-S DX Micro-NIKKOR 85mm f/3.5G ED carries a rounded nine-blade diaphragm which ultimately improves AF. There are 14 elements in 11 groups and all of them are super integrated coated while one of these is ED glass elements. Nikon AF-S DX Micro-NIKKOR 85mm f/3.5G ED prime telephoto lens is designed for DX-format Nikon F-mount.

Weight & Build Quality: Weight of Nikon AF-S DX Micro-NIKKOR 85mm f/3.5G ED is 355 grams which is a very light and small weight. The compact size is suitable for traveling. The price makes it the best cheap macro lens for Nikon. When it comes to build quality, the barrel is made up of plastic but the mount is constructed from metal.

Drawbacks

  1. It has no focus limiter
  2. Omit full-frame lens mount

Video Tutorial

Pros

  • Very sharp
  • Compact in size
  • It has an optical image stabilizer

Cons

  • Little barrel distortion

Best macro lens for Nikon D5600

Micro-NIKKOR 60mm f/2.8D

Best Macro lenes For Nikon

Top Features

  •  Focal length: 60mm
  • Aperture: f/2.8
  • Min. focus distance: 0.22m
  • Elements in groups: 8/7
  • Weight: 440g

Micro-NIKKOR 60mm f/2.8D is the best macro lens for Nikon D5600. It has a very light weight, good build quality and the image quality is just perfect.

Autofocus & Accuracy: the minimum focusing distance of Micro-NIKKOR 60mm f/2.8D is 0.22m. The optical design of the lens uses a Close Range Correction system that works for the improvement of focusing. The AF is not supported by the DSLR’s that lack it but it with selective Nikon cameras such as the one that have D-type mount.

Sharpness & Stabilization: The Close Range Correction system also maintains sharpness of the lens. It basically keeps the sharpness in perfect place throughout the focusing range which ultimately results in improved accurate rendering and color contrast.

Elements & Mount: Micro-NIKKOR 60mm f/2.8D prime lens features 8 elements in 7 groups. It is a compact lens that we think is the best macro lens for Nikon D5600. The lens is designed for FX-format F-mount and DX model cameras. The lens is unfortunately not compatible with DSLRs that lack AF motors for instance, D3000, D500, D60 and D40 but it is usable with Nikon DSLR cameras that support D-lens mount.

Weight & Build Quality: Micro-NIKKOR 60mm f/2.8D prime lens weighs 440 grams in total which we think is very light and compact. It also has a rounded seven-blade diaphragm which works for focusing of the lens. The lens is strong and lightweight but the manufacturer does not provide a built-in lens hood with the lens. Furthermore, its mount is metal made which makes it the best macro lens for Nikon D5600.

Drawbacks

  1. Vignette effect is strong

Video Tutorial

Pros

  • 1:1 maximum magnification
  • End-to-end sharp
  • Zero distortion

Cons

  • No stabilization

Best macro lens for Nikon DX

Nikon DX 40mm f/2.8G

Best Macro lenes For Nikon

Top Features

  •  Focal length: 40mm
  • Aperture: f/2.8
  • Min. focus distance: 0.16
  • Elements in groups: 9/7
  • Weight: 235g

Nikon DX 40mm f/2.8G is the best macro lens for Nikon DX and we will prove it to you in a little while.

Autofocus & Accuracy: Autofocus of a lens must be fast but it should be precise as well therefore Nikon DX 40mm f/2.8G features Ultrasonic AF motor. This motor works to aid fast, silent and accurate AF. The minimum distance through which Nikon DX 40mm f/2.8G can focus is 0.16 meter which is very impressive and makes it the best macro lens for Nikon DX. 

Sharpness & Stabilization: To improve the image quality of Nikon DX 40mm f/2.8G each individual element is Super Integrate coated which reduces flare and ghosting that enhances color contrast and color fidelity. The reduced flare increases sharpness and accuracy. The lens also features a Silent Wave Motor which induces focusing and stabilization in the images and videos.

Elements & Mount: Total 9 elements are designed in 7 groups. The Super Integrated coating of the elements make the lens more reliable. Nikon DX 40mm f/2.8G is a slightly longer macro lens that is fundamentally designed for DX-format Nikon F-mount cameras where it offers 60mm equivalent focal length to the camera.

Weight & Build Quality: Weight of the lens is very light and the size is slightly larger. Nikon DX 40mm f/2.8G weighs 235 gram. The build quality is also very impressive but it is not dust and moisture resistant, otherwise the lens has a metal mount and a very well built plastic barrel. The overall quality of construction and images makes it the best macro lens for Nikon DX.

Drawbacks

  1. Nikon DX 40mm f/2.8G is not  a full frame lens

Video Tutorial

Pros

  • Impressive image sharpness
  • Compact, lightweight and affordable
  • 1:1 magnification
  • Focus limiter

Cons

  • No stabilization

Sigma macro lens for Nikon

Sigma 105mm f/2.8 EX DG OS HSM

Best Macro lenes For Nikon

Top Features

  •  Focal length: 150mm
  • Aperture: f/2.8
  • Min. focus distance: 0.38m
  • Elements in groups: 19/13
  • Weight: 1150g

It is considered to be the best out of all the macro lenses for Nikon and why? Because it is very sharp, accurate and precise. The zooming capacity makes it the best choice.

Autofocus & Accuracy: The Hyper Sonic Motor (HSM) works in combination with the internal focusing system of Sigma 105mm f/2.8 EX DG OS HSM. Both of these focusing mechanisms update the ordinary AF performance to a fast and precise working. The super multi-layered lens elements makes the resulting images and videos accurate color and contrast rich by suppressing flare, aberrations and ghosting.

Sharpness & Stabilization: As far as sharpness of frame is concerned, the optical design carries three Super Low-dispersion (SLD) elements for reduction of fringing and ghosting thus inducing sharpness and clarity. Optical image stabilizer minimizes the blur and unclear effects caused by slight vibration of the lens.

Elements & Mount: Sigma 105mm f/2.8 EX DG OS HSM have an optical design of 19 elements in 13 groups out of which three are SLD (Super Low-dispersion) elements. It is designed for full-frame Canon EF-mount but it is usable with APS-C model cameras as well.

Weight & Build Quality: Weight of Sigma 105mm f/2.8 EX DG OS HSM is 1150 gram and believe it or not but it is worth it when you see the image quality. It has a tripod collar and filters. The build quality of the lens is pretty impressive.

Drawbacks

  1. The lens is heavy and large

Pros

  • 1:1 magnification
  • Impressive sharpness and focusing range

Cons

  • Expensive

Best macro lens for Nikon D850

Nikon 105mm f/2.8G IF-ED

Best Macro lenes For Nikon

Top Features

  •  Focal length: 105mm
  • Aperture: f/2.8
  • Min. focus distance: 0.31m
  • Elements in groups: 14/12
  • Weight: 720g

What better than a short telephoto macro lens? So here we present to you the Nikon 105mm f/2.8 G IF-ED is the best macro lens for Nikon.

Autofocus & Accuracy: There is a Silent Wave Motor AF system in the lens which improves the lens performance in both stills and videos. The AF can be very easily overridden by manual focusing ring. Moreover Nikon 105mm f/2.8 G IF-ED has a minimum focusing distance of 0.31 meters. For accuracy the lens features Super integrated and Nano Crystal coating of individual lens elements which proves to reduce flare, ghosting, aberrations and reflections to aid color contrast and accuracy.

Sharpness & Stabilization: The Vibration Reduction system of the lens works in order to reduce blur and unclear areas in both stills and videos, hence works for image sharpness. On the other hand, the four-stop image stabilization also works to aid smooth accurate recording and shooting through the lens.

Elements & Mount: Nikon 105mm f/2.8 G IF-ED has an optical design of 14 elements in 12 groups. It is very competitive in its working. All the individual elements are Super Integrate coated while one of the elements is ED glass and one is Nano Coating glass element. Nikon 105mm f/2.8 G IF-ED is designed for FX-format Nikon F-Mount but it is also usable with DX models of cameras.

Weight & Build Quality: Weight of the lens is 720 gram which makes it comparatively light and compact. It also has rounded nine-blade diaphragm, furthermore, Nikon 105mm f/2.8 G IF-ED is compatible with AF-S teleconverter. Likewise the image quality, build quality of the lens is also very good. Nikon 105mm f/2.8 G IF-ED telephoto macro lens includes built-in lens hood so you don’t have to spend extra for it.

Drawbacks

  1. Minimum distance of focusing is short

Pros

  • Very sharp and stable
  • Zero distortion

Cons

  • Costly

Tamron SP AF 90mm f/2.8 Di VC USD

Best Macro lenes For Nikon

Top Features

  •  Focal length: 90mm
  • Aperture: f/2.8
  • Min. focus distance: 0.29
  • Elements in groups: 10/9
  • Weight: 405g

Tamron FX 90mm f/2.8 Di SP is the best macro lens for Nikon because of its image sharpness, accuracy and precision. The 1:1 macro magnification is also an important feature of the lens.

Autofocus & Accuracy: A micro-motor and ring-type USD focusing system are dedicated to precise AF performance. The AF functions of the Tamron SP AF 90mm f/2.8 Di lens is thus very rapid and accurate. Additionally, the USD motor also aids the full-time manual focusing of the lens. For accuracy, on the other hand, the eBAND and BBAR coated lenses are present which suppress flare, ghosting and surface reflection.

Sharpness & Stabilization: As image sharpness is considered important in photography Tamron SP AF 90mm f/2.8 Di telephoto lens fulfills this category by one Low-dispersion and two Extra Low-dispersion elements. For stabilization purposes there is a VC image stabilization system installed in the lens.

Elements & Mount: Optical design of Tamron SP AF 90mm f/2.8 Di constitutes 10 elements in 9 groups. One out of the ten elements is a Low-dispersion glass element while two are Extra Low-dispersion glass elements. Tamron SP AF 90mm f/2.8 Di short-telephoto macro lens is basically designed for FX-format Nikon F-mount cameras but the usability of the lens also reaches the DX models.

Weight & Build Quality: Weight of this one of the best macro lenses for Nikon, Tamron SP AF 90mm f/2.8 Di is 405 gram which is very light. The build quality of the lens is very impressive including the weight, body, lens construction, optical design. Additionally, the lens also carries a built-in lens hood, however it lacks a tripod collar. 

Drawbacks

  1.  The corners become dim at wide aperture

Pros

  • Sharp and stabilized
  • Multiple compatible mounts
  • Zero distortion

Cons

  • Bulky

Samyang 100mmf/2.8 ED UMC

Best Macro lenes For Nikon

Top Features

  •  Focal length: 100mm
  • Aperture: f/2.8
  • Min. focus distance: 0.31m
  • Elements in groups: 15/12
  • Weight: 720g

Samyang 100mmf/2.8 ED UMC ranks in the list for a reason. It has a sharp image quality likewise the build quality and accuracy.

Autofocus & Accuracy: For accuracy Samyang 100mmf/2.8 ED UMC features internal focusing design which maintains its working but the front filters are not applicable while focusing. The rounder nine-blade diaphragm also works for the improvement of focus.

Sharpness & Stabilization: One high refractive index and one Extra Low-dispersion element control color contrast and chromatic aberrations. It indirectly stabilizes the images and induces sharpness. Furthermore, the ultra multi-coating of elements suppress flare and ghosting thus the resulting images and video recordings are sharp and accurate.

Elements & Mount: The optical design of Samyang 100mmf/2.8 ED UMC prime lens comprises 15 elements in 12 groups each of which is ultra multi coated. Out of these 15 elements one is ED and one is HRI element. The lens has a vast compatibility options which makes it fundamentally designed for Sony E-Mount but as we are discussing the best macro lenses for Nikon, we see that it is compatible with FX-format Nikon F-Mount cameras alongside the APS-C models.

Weight & Build Quality: weight of the lens is 720 gram. The total weight of Samyang 100mmf/2.8 ED UMC prime macro lens makes it travel friendly and light to carry. The size of the lens is also relatively small. Now coming to the build quality, the build quality of Samyang 100mmf/2.8 ED UMC prime lens makes it the best macro lens for Nikon. It has vast compatibility options and lens hood in the lens construction.

Drawbacks

  1. The lens lack image stabilization

Pros

  • Sharp, focused and compact
  • Internal focusing
  • Affordable
  • Vast compatible mounting options

Cons

  • Imagery sharpness decrease at wide aperture

IRIX 150mm f/2.8

Best Macro lenes For Nikon

Top Features

  •  Focal length: 150mm
  • Aperture: f/2.8
  • Min. focus distance: 0.35m
  • Elements in groups: 12/9
  • Weight: 840g

Autofocus & Accuracy: For AF the lens consists of a manual focusing mechanism that works for proper fast and accurate AF. The accuracy is complemented by lens elements that are neutrino coated. We can say after analyzing all the features of IRIX 150mm f/2.8 that it is the best macro lens for Nikon.

Sharpness & Stabilization: IRIX 150mm f/2.8 macro lens uses hyper-focal and pre-focus techniques to induce sharpness in the final results however the lens elements also aids to the sharpness by reducing flare and ghosting. This lens does not provide image stabilization.

Elements & Mount: Lens construction of IRIX 150mm f/2.8 macro lens consists of 12 elements in 9 groups. The elements are neutrino coated to improve the lens image quality. It is compatible with full-frame Nikon F-Mount cameras but the compatibility is up to APS-C and Canon cameras.

Weight & Build Quality: The total weight of IRIX 150mm f/2.8 prime lens is 840 grams which is a very considerable lightweight. The lens is made in a compact design, moreover the robust construction which include Dragonfly finishing makes it weather sealed it is indeed the best macro lens for Nikon.

Drawbacks

  1. No compatibility with mirrorless

Pros

  • Impressive image sharpness
  • Weatherproof
  • Not expensive

Cons

  • Heavy

AF-S Micro-NIKKOR 60mm f/2.8G ED

Best Macro lenes For Nikon

Top Features

  •  Focal length: 60mm
  • Aperture: f/2.8
  • Min. focus distance: 0.19m
  • Elements in groups: 12/9
  • Weight: 425g

AF-S Micro-NIKKOR 60mm f/2.8G ED designed for FX-format and we think it is the best macro lens for Nikon cameras.

Autofocus & Accuracy: Silent Wave Motor in the lens makes the AF very quick and quiet. It works along with the full-time focusing of the lens and promotes clear focused performance. For accuracy, two aspherical lens elements reduce distortion and aberrations and result in clarity and sharpness.

Sharpness & Stabilization: One Extra Low-dispersion element increases sharpness by decreasing flare and ghosting. At the same time, Nano crystal and Super Integrate coated elements reduce flare, ghosting and aberration which ultimately stabilize the images and videos.

Elements & Mount: Optical design of AF-S Micro-NIKKOR 60mm f/2.8G ED telephoto macro lens comprising 12 elements in 9 groups. Out of these twelve elements one is an ED glass element and two are aspherical lenses while one lens element in Nano crystal coated. AF-S Micro-NIKKOR 60mm f/2.8G ED telephoto macro lens is best macro lens for Nikon as it is especially designed for FX-format Nikon but it is usable with DX model as well.

Weight & Build Quality: AF-S Micro-NIKKOR 60mm f/2.8G ED lens weighs 425 gram. It is a lightweight lens with a small compact body which makes it very easy to carry for shooting purposes. The construction materials of the lens include both metal and plastic likewise, the barrel is made up of plastic and the mount of metal. It also includes a lens hood from the manufacturer.

Drawbacks

  1. Vignette is strong

Pros

  • End-to-end sharp
  • Zero distortion
  • Lightweight and compact body

Cons

  • No stabilization

Nikon Z MC 105mm f/2.8 VR S

Best Macro lenes For Nikon

Top Features

  •  Focal length: 105mm
  • Aperture: f/2.8
  • Min. focus distance: 0.29m
  • Elements in groups: 16/11
  • Weight: 630g

This S-line macro lens is the best lens for Nikon because of its aperture, sharpness, accuracy and fast functioning.

Autofocus & Accuracy:  The dual motor multi-focusing system of Nikon Z MC 105mm f/2.8 VR S along with the full-time manual focusing makes it very fast and accurate throughout the range. The accuracy is also very well sustained. The Nano crystal coating of lens elements makes it very accurate.

Sharpness & Stabilization: The Vibration Reduction image stabilization mechanism of the lens makes it very stable throughout the aperture range in both stills and video recordings. On the other hand, for sharpness it has Nano coating alongside the ARNEO anti-reflective coating of the elements to induce sharpness in the lens working by reducing flare, ghosting and aberrations.

Elements & Mount: Total lens elements in the 11 groups are 16. This optical design uses Nano coating of individual lens elements along with the ARNEO anti-reflective coating. Nikon Z MC 105mm f/2.8 VR S telephoto lens is fundamentally designed for FX-format Nikon Z-mount but it is compatible with DX models as well.

Weight & Build Quality: Weight of Nikon Z MC 105mm f/2.8 VR S is 630 gram which is relatively light and compact. The lens is reliable in harsh conditions as the fluorine coating makes it dust and moisture sealed. The quality of the lens is impressive considering both the build and image. Nikon Z MC 105mm f/2.8 VR S macro lens is indeed the best macro lens for Nikon.

Drawbacks

  1. It has a very sensitive control ring

Pros

  • Outstanding magnification and resolution
  • Weatherproof
  • Fluorine coating
  • Digital display

Cons

  • Slow focusing

Nikon AF Micro-NIKKOR 200mm f/4D ED

Best Macro lenes For Nikon

Top Features

  •  Focal length: 200mm
  • Aperture: f/4
  • Min. focus distance: 0.50
  • Elements in groups: 13/8
  • Weight: 1190

When it comes to macro lenses specifically for Nikon cameras, the manufacturer has launched some of the best macro lenses for its Nikon cameras.

Autofocus & Accuracy: The Nikon AF Micro-NIKKOR 200mm f/4D ED features the best internal focusing system that promotes fast and accurate working of lens AF. Accuracy is maintained throughout the aperture range. The AF is, however, compatible with Nikon DSLRs D-type. 

Sharpness & Stabilization: Nikon AF Micro-NIKKOR 200mm f/4D ED has two Low-dispersion elements that reduce flare and ghosting hence sharpness and clarity is maintained. On the other hand, the super integrated coating of individual lens elements makes it the best for strong bright light conditions.

Elements & Mount: Lens construction of Nikon AF Micro-NIKKOR 200mm f/4D ED lens consists of 13 elements in 8 groups. Additionally, super integrated coating is applied to individual lens elements. Nikon AF Micro-NIKKOR 200mm f/4D ED telephoto lens is basically designed for FX-Format Nikon F-mount cameras but DX models are also compatible with it.

Weight & Build Quality: Weight of the lens is 1150 gram. It is the best macro lens for Nikon as it is light and compact yet sturdy. The build quality of the lens is also very amazing as is the image quality. It includes a tripod collar along with the nine-blade diaphragm.

Drawbacks

  1. It does not have image stabilization

Pros

  • AF and aperture ring is good
  • It is lightweight and compact

Cons

  • No weather sealing

Tokina 100mm f/2.8

Best Macro lenes For Nikon

Top Features

  •  Focal length: 100mm
  • Aperture: f/2.8
  • Min. focus distance: 0.30M
  • Elements in groups: 9/8
  • Weight: 540g

Tokina 100mm f/2.8 is a prime lens that has a maximum aperture of f/2.8 and minimum f/32.

Autofocus & Accuracy: The Tokina 100mm f/2.8 prime lens uses a flat-field optical design which carries out the working behind accurate AF and accurate rendering. It also has a focus limiter that makes it easier to control the focusing whereas a one-touch focus clutch is a mechanism that enables the lens to enter-change AF and MF.

Sharpness & Stabilization: The flat-field optical design one again benefits the sharpness of the lens by and reduces the field curvature. It carries out constant sharpness through the entire aperture range. The multi-layered lens elements decrease flare and ghosting thus increasing stability, sharpness and accuracy.

Elements & Mount: The flat-field optical design of Tokina 100mm f/2.8 prime lens consists of 9 elements in 8 groups. All the elements are multi-layered coated which further clarify the image and video shootings. Tokina 100mm f/2.8 is the best macro lens for Nikon as it is fundamentally designed for the FX-format Nikon F-mount cameras however the lens is compatible with APS-C and Canon cameras.

Weight & Build Quality: Weight of Tokina 100mm f/2.8 is 540 gram. It is a lightweight compact lens that is suitable for traveling. It also has a built-in lens hood along with the nine-blade diaphragm from the manufacturer.

Drawbacks

  1. The AF is slower

Pros

  • Excellent resolution
  • Build quality is good
  • Affordable

Cons

  • In strong light source color contrast is not impressive

BUYING GUIDE

In this section of the article ” Best Macro Lenses For Nikon” we will be discussing some of the features that a macro lens must have, below are some of them. A macro lens must have a focal length between 90-105mm and a good range of aperture. This guide will help you choose the best macro lens for your camera.

But, your selection is based on the characteristics that you demand from a macro lense which may vary depending on the shooting conditions. There are other features discussed in individual reviews of the lenses but we will discuss a few in this buying guide.

Aperture

The higher the number of apertures the better will be macro images captured. When you select a macro lens to buy for a Nikon camera, try a lens with a higher number of  apertures . By that I mean an aperture of f/5.6-11 without compromising the focal length. Both aperture and focal length hold equal importance.

Autofocus

The autofocus is also an important part of a macro lens. We need a faster yet reliable autofocus for any photography including photography with macro lens. We want clear pictures for which we need a fast AF. Thus, go for a quieter and quicker AF.

Budget

Budget is very important to check before choosing a lens. Sometimes the price tag defines the quality of a macro lens while at others it doesn’t. Unfortunately, there are some features that take the prices very high for a lens. So, do check it on your budget before deciding.

CONCLUSION

This was our article about the “Best Macro Lenses for Nikon”. This article carries various lenses that are the best macro lenses for Nikon out of all the lenses. The details mentioned in the article are authentic.

It is compiled after analysis and investigation to give you the best information only. Remember to check the aforementioned details in the buying guide before finalizing a lens.

We hope this article was helpful to you!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *